All buildings are built from the limestone of the mountain itself. Wood was rare on the island and found only sparing use.
The city was in the Archaic period comprises only a tiny remote village in the Cyclades. The foundation came from Dorian colonists from Sparta who recognized the strategic position of the place. Herodotus and Pausanias tell of the mythical ruler Theras, son of the King of Thebes Autesion, who had reigned in Saparta as the guardian of his infant nephews Procles and Eurysthenes , and after they grown, he build new settlement on the island. Subsequently the island of Thera have been named after Theras and the name was transferred to the 9th century BC ancient city. Herodotus writes of a further seven-year drought in the year 630 BC, that had forced the inhabitants of Thera to send colonists in Libya. This settlement was extremely successful and Thera enjoyed for a long time as the mother city of Cyrene, despite the low self-importance a good reputation. From the 6th Century BC, was found a collection of 760 coins, testifies to the modest trade links to Athens and Corinth in the west and Ionia and Rhodes in the east.
The city’s role changed when in the second half of the 3rd Century BC, during the Hellenistic period, the Ptolemaic navy was stationed at the port of the city . The city was completely rebuilt to the existing structure by a regular grid of streets laid out and replaced prestigious buildings in the form of peristyle. The naval base was removed by 145 BC.
In the Roman period from the middle of the 1st Century BC, the island belonged to the province and city of Asia, and although no high-ranking officials resided on the island, show a certain prosperity and importance of Thera and complex construction projects where build.
In Byzantine times it was mentioned again and had a bishop and until the 5th Century,it was the only urban settlement on the island of Santorini. The site was abandoned finally in 726 after another eruption of the volcano of Santorini