In spite of the Santorini volcanic past shows no depletion of flora and fauna. The species numbers are comparable to other islands of the southern Aegean Sea. The possibility of documentation of immigration, offer the islands in the caldera.
landscape Thicket forming plants and olive groves are almost complete. The vegetation is composed of approximately 97% of the typical bushes in various combinations on nearly all the older fallows, the transition to younger fallows is seamless.
Particularly well studied is the flora of Nea Kameni, seven collecting trips since 1911 provided a total of 156 species of ferns and seed plants. By volcanic eruptions in the first half of the 20th Century, stocks have been decimated repeatedly. The actual number of species is 130 species (1987). According to the volcanic activities of the 20th Century have evolved in different locations, different types of plant communities. Permanent immigration of species and development accompanies a displacement process of pioneer plants. Apart from some Ficus carica trees, the volcanic activity of the 20 Century survived characterize dense clumps of Hyparrhenia hirta and the annual Lupinus angustifolius, the steppe vegetation.
To observe the development of the beginning of a shrub vegetation since the mid-1980s. Has established itself Atriplex halimus, the first seedlings of Pistacia lentiscus were detected.